The Basic Efficiency Resource (BER) model uses a two-dimensional matrix  to aid the evaluation of complex multi-unit programs, with quadrants to identify over and underperforming units. The BER model was inspired by portfolio management approaches from the Boston Consulting Group and the General Electric Grid, as well as quadrant analysis by Andreasen (1995). However, its core principles are based on the concept of social return on investment, where output is always compared to input. It provides a relative perspective on performance that allows evaluators to account for impact based on the resources invested in an initiative.